Day 1 :
University of Oldenburg, Germany
Keynote: Local apertureless SNOM for biomaterials without staining much higher resolving, more versatile, easier, and cheaper than stochastic STED and PALM
Time : 10:20-10:55
Gerd Kaupp has completed his PhD from Würzburg University and Post-doctoral studies from Iowa State University, Lausanne University, and Freiburg University. He held a Full-Professorship till 2005 in Oldenburg Germany, and privately continues his research on Wasteless Solid-State Chemistry (since 1984), AFM on rough surfaces (since 1988), the non-stochastic but versatile and better resolving sub-diffraction-limit microscopy for unstained non-fluorescing materials of all types (resolution <10 nm, since 1995), and nano-indentations (since 2000). He has published more than 300 papers in renowned journals and has been serving as an Editorial Board Member of several scientific journals.
The present hype with stochastic imaging of fluorescence dyes like STED, PALM, etc., providing only slightly submicroscopic optical resolution, had long been preceded by uncomplicated and much better resolving apertureless shear force SNOM (scanning near-field optical microscopy). Only the latter technique applies to all types of unstained flat or rough real-world materials' surfaces (dielectric, semi-conductive, metallic, fluorescing, non-fluorescing) at local optical resolution down to <9 nm, and it additionally provides topography. It is versatile, easy, and cheap. The artifacts of apertured SNOM are avoided. Basically, an uncoated illuminated sharply tapered dielectric waveguide tip of a shear force AFM is vibrated at shear force distance and the light reflected back to the silica waveguide is coupled out, measured, and/or diffracted. A commercial laser puller provides 10-20 nm end radii at almost no cost. Metal coating is unnecessary due to our unexpected physical effect of strong materials' dependent near-field enhancement of reflectivity (2-50 fold; not only for metals). This provides chemical contrast. We resolve local molecular reactions on crystals, characterize nanoparticles, measure local Raman- or fluorescence-spectra for identifications and diffusion coefficient determinations, distinguish organelles in bio-cells, resolve details within organelles, detect/localize cancer, judge blood bag performance and nano-pitting of implant materials. Nothing of that is available from the expensive stochastic techniques. Furthermore, these chemically bind fluorescing dyes to biomaterial, which inevitably changes their structure (hydrogen bonding, coiling, etc.). Thus, any conclusions from their highly acclaimed stochastic images urgently require reality check by the preceding superior and more versatile apertureless SNOM.
Group photo and Coffee break 10:55 -11:20@Foyer
Department of Engineering Technology, College of Technology, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204, USA.
Time : 11:20-11:55
Biography Sivakumar’s research is primarily focused on biotech implications and applications of high-value natural products. He has extensively studied the plant-based small molecules pathway biochemistry, synthetic biology and metabolic & bioprocess engineering. He is internationally recognized in the field of biopharmaceuticals and a pioneer in industrial-scale production of bioactive molecules. He has over 40 publications. He is also on the editorial board of several journals. He serves as an expert of grant proposals as well as numerous scientific journals. His laboratory focuses on metabolic and bioprocess engineering of colchicine pathway and developing potential anticancer medicine. In addition, his group is interested in developing biofuels to address energy and environmental problems. Additional information can be found at http://tech.uh.edu/ganapathy
Plant-based colchicine profoundly benefits human health. Demand for ultra-pure natural colchicine, however, is unlikely to be met through conventional production. A new bioprocessing platform has been established using specialized biorhizomes with comprehensive specific-enzymes that catalyze the construction of biogenic functionalized intermediates that convert to colchicine. Biorhizome is a type of compressed scale leaf-derived rhizome tissue, culturally persuaded in vitro. These asexually produced rootstocks, whose buds develop new lateral shoots and adventitious roots that serve as reproductive and storage organs as well as biofactories, are used to biosynthesize high-value pharmaceuticals and others. Additionally, the sprouting biorhizome carries the same genetic code as its parent plant and is totipotent, and thus can be used to study plant metabolic processes. This presentation will focus on discovery of unique biorhizome platform that have evolved toward total biosynthesis of high-value natural colchicine drug.
University of Leipzig, Germany
Time : 11:55-12:30
Frank Emmrich is a Professor of Clinical Immunology and Head of the Fraunhofer Institute for Cell Therapy and Immunology (IZI) Leipzig since 2005. He has published more than 270 papers in reputed journals. He is Member of numerous scientific societies, advisory boards and Project Adviser for various research funding organizations. He has served two election periods as Member of the German National Ethics Council. He is a Professor for Clinical Immunology at the University of Leipzig. His special interest is T Cell Immunology and Immunotolerance. He is currently the Chairman of the Regenerative Medicine Initiative Germany (RMIG
About 20 years were needed to implement the invention of monoclonal antibodies with clinical and industrial acceptance for novel therapies, and another 10 years for reaching blockbuster level. Now the time has come to welcome cell therapies at the clinical stage with complex procedures that have been developed throughout the last 10 to 15 years. Dendritic cell vaccines, NK cells and chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells are being explored in various configurations in clinical studies. Connected with these developments are new challenges. Certain regulatory authorities find it difficult to handle processes with mixed categories like cell therapy and gene therapy, or combinations of drugs with medical devices. On the manufacturing site originates a demand of for reduction product costs by drastically reducing manual processing steps and implementing automation. Moreover, a better understanding of mechanisms at the molecular and cellular level may reduce costs and risks of new therapeutic procedures for patients. It is well established that anti-CD4 antibody treatment of helper T cells would induce immunological tolerance when applied in the ongoing phase of an immune response. We studied the mechanism and could further develop the procedure to an applicable technology that allows extracorporeal treatment of T cell containing allotransplants thus reducing treatment risks and product costs significantly. If applied in the field of organ transplantation and transplantation antigens the procedure may be useful for preventing graft rejection of organ transplants or the graft versus host disease (GvHD), the most severe adverse reaction upon allogeneic stem cell transplantation.